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American Journal of innovative
Research & Applied Sciences 
ISSN  2429-5396 (Online)
OCLC Number: 920041286
Chapter 5:

Humanitarian disruptive open innovation

Humanitarian disruptive innovation meets basic needs and develops income-generating activities. It can emerge from adaptation and learning within humanitarian organizations. It can come from new
partnerships in order to improve local infrastructure. It originates from innovators adapting or developing innovations solving humanitarian problems in developing countries. We outline the role played by
immigrant or foreign innovators in two main domains, infrastructure disruptive innovation and frugal disruptive innovations. 


Communities around the world are affected by crisis and seek for innovations adapted to their ecosystem (Betts et al, 2015).   Innovators faced with significant constraints, found solutions of their own and
navigated in new and challenging environments. Some of them used their experience in order to propose responses to affected communities by using open innovations implemented in cooperation with local

Even under the most difficult imperatives, individuals discover approaches to take part in inventive critical thinking. Being versatile and innovative is frequently fundamental with a specific end goal to
address essential issues, to create salary producing activities, or to keep long-haul desires alive.

It can rise up out of It can emerge from adaptation and learning within humanitarian organizations. It can come from new partnerships in order to improve local infrastructure.

The significance of these on-going transfers about helpful development has been perceived by the 2016 World Humanitarian Summit. However, a great part of the philanthropic advancement face off
regarding so far has concentrated on enhancing hierarchical reactions in helpful emergencies.

Various associations, for example, UNICEF (The United Nations Children's Fund) and UNHCR (The United Nations Refugee Agency) steadily incorporate advancement work and (elrha.org site).

Infrastructure disruptive open innovation

ICT in developing nations

Omidyar Network
Omidyar Network considers the worldwide advancement comprehensively, with an eye toward financial and political strengthening (insidephilantropy site).
It is the brainchild of eBay originator Pierre Omidyar and his significant other, Pam, a geneticist via preparing. Omidyar bolsters both charitable and revenue driven associations. Omidyar just offers help on
the off chance that it centers around one of the system's five needed activities, Consumer Internet and Mobile. Instruction, Financial Inclusion, Governance and Civil Engagement and Property Rights.
Omidyar Network conceded $4.5 Million of every 2009 to Opportunity International to configuration make and actualize new electronic and versatile keeping money advancements that will lessen transfer
expenses and make microfinance administrations accessible to more individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa (omidyar microfinance site).
Opportunity International utilize the give to dispatch an "electronic wallet" system in Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda – nations where Opportunity
International has noteworthy tasks as of now, including banks and money-related organizations. The technique means to build up the ideal blend of electronically managing an account advances required in
every one of these nations.
In Ghana and Rwanda, Opportunity International imports its innovation now in broad use in the Philippines to interface with every nation's developing national installment framework. This ability enhances
the accessibility of budgetary administrations, opportuneness of transfer announcing and security of customer managing an account, and in addition, diminish the cost of keeping money transfers.
Opportunity International is developing a cell phone saving money answers to help the electronic transfer of stores and withdrawals for its customers. Through its work, the association hopes to empower in
excess of 250,000 customers to lead 36 million transfers crosswise over five nations. Furthermore, credit officers will have the capacity to convey cell phone gadgets to gather charge installments and give
receipts and different administrations to its customers in rustic Africa.
Opportunity International serves around 1.1 million poor business people in 27 developing nations by offering independent company advances, investment funds, protection and preparing in essential
business practices to ladies and men living in incessant neediness.
OptINnow™, associates individuals who need to have any kind of effect with the working poor around the globe. People can "select in" – for as meager as $25 – to support an assigned business visionary.
As the credits are reimbursed, the cash is advanced over and over to help different business people.

Omidyar Network, Fundación Avina, and Avina Americas have propelled in February 2017 the Latin American Alliance for Civic Technology (ALTEC). The $3.5M reserve will bolster the advancement and
advancement of city tech stages made to build government straightforwardness, battle debasement, and enhance the conveyance of open administrations (ommidyar site latin America site).
ALTEC is the following emphasis of the Accelerator Fund for Civic Innovation, which was made in 2013 by Avina and Omidyar Network and has been credited with kick-beginning the urban tech part in Latin
The Accelerator Fund put $2.3M more than three years in the advancement and advancement of 26 stages and applications in 9 nations in Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.
The store bolstered ventures, for example, "A Tu Servicio" in Uruguay, which gave natives all the more convenient and exact data about general wellbeing administrations in their nation, and "Caminos de la
Villa" in Argentina, a stage to connect with subjects and carefully delineate ghettos in Buenos Aires. Different associations bolstered by the Fund incorporate Codeando México (in Mexico), D.A.T.A. (in
Uruguay), Democracia en Red and Wingu (in Argentina), and TEDIC (in Paraguay).
Dipak Basu holds a BTech from IIT Kharagpur and an MSEE from the University of Southern California. He held senior administrative positions in Product Management and Professional Services at Cisco
Systems from 1995 to 2006, where his last position was Director, Global Center of Expertise (anudip.org site). At Cisco, Dipak Basu an US immigrant from Indiahelped to establish an innovative union of the
world's 50 biggest compassionate organizations (nethope site).

In the vast majority of Kenya, broadband entrance is at worldwide lows; almost 72% of Kenyans are without the web and some even need essential power, influencing the nature of instruction, legislative
issues, medicinal services and everything within. Living without Internet gets to being normally a factor of cost.

Whenever NetHope and the USAID Global Broadband and Innovations (GBI) Program ventured into Mawingu, Kenya, the objective was to associate provincial Kenyans to Internet and power in a moderate
way. The picked innovation was the exceedingly reasonable innovation called TV blank area (TVWS) that exploits unused range groups beforehand utilized for TV broadcasting at a rate of only a couple of
dollars for each month.

The task, some portion of Microsoft's 4Afrika activity, has impelled a few different projects, including a telemedicine benefit; analyze applications and more around government support and farming.

The undertaking gives Internet and electric capacity to a huge number of rural Kenyans. It has set up 50 Wi-Fi hotspot areas and a superior online training in neighborhood schools.

Frugal Innovation

Jugaad  innovation

Navi Radjou, Jaideep Prabhu, and Simone Ahuja all three US immigrants from India, are co-creators of the business smash hit Jugaad Innovation: Think Frugal, Be Flexible, Generate Breakthrough Growth
(Radjou et al, 2012).
Jugaad in Indian means "An improvised fix and a solution born in adversity"( Radjou et al, 2012 p 4).  Jugaad-solutions are not perfect or sophisticated, but they create more value for a lower cost (Radjou et
al, 2012).  The six principles are Seek opportunity in adversity.  Do more with less., Think and act flexibly.  Keep it simple.  Include the margin.  Follow your heart.
Radjou et al (2012) present a typical frugal innovation developed in India by Mansukh Prajapati, the Mitti Cool refrigerator from clay.
Mitti Cool (mitti implies ''earth'' in Hindi) is today an icebox made only from clay, which utilizes the regular cooling-effect, developed while evaporizing water, and it can hold vegetables new in up to seven
days. Water from the upper chambers dribbles down along within the icebox, expels the warmth and leaves the chambers cool.
The water is put away in the upper load and can really be utilized for drinking-water through a small faucet. The refrigerator, which costs around US$50.

Frugal Digital

Frugal Digital is a research group leader by two Danish immigrant from India, Vinay Venkatraman and Priya Mani,
and supported by HYPERLINK "http://ciid.dk/"Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design (CIID). The focus is on researching methods and practices around creating digital solutions in low resource settings like that of developing
economies (frugal digital website). Herewith three examples.

Clock Sense measuring blood sugar
Cheap Digital's 'Clock Sense', outlined in Copenhagen and in view of research from India, utilizes the packaging from a simple wake up timer and can gauge the levels of oxygenated hemoglobin in the
On account of LEDs and a solitary light-sensor, from a TV remote-controller, this unit can give a basic perusing of the general condition of wellbeing in diabetes tolerant. Different sensors like a thermometer
can be associated through USB.
Lunch box projector  to facilitate education.
The container was fitted with a small USB 2.0 port to empower information input. Since we utilized a 3G telephone, the projector had information connectivity and the touch screen of the telephone was
utilized as a atrack cushion for the route. The telephone memory could likewise be utilized to duplicate information on to liberating the USB port. Small, conservative, and effortlessly transportable. Field
migrants and educators could without much of a stretch envision conveying one of them in their pack. Likewise, the telephones accompany a couple of frill like a tripod and remote which were additionally
used to improve the highlights of the projector.

LoVoCo Mobile – Localized Vocalized Community
LoVoCo Mobile is a minimal effort versatile radio station running from a cellphone. This makes it conceivable to call it from any place on the planet and be communicating live – wherever it goes. You can
likewise communicate by playing sound documents from the telephone or just by talking into its amplifier. A couple of standard headphones can be associated with the cellphone, empowering the supporter
to confirm what goes on-air.
LoVoCo was developed locally in Cape Town as a team with a gathering of radio makers at Migrant's World Media Production, who is as of now proceeding with the field testing of the model with various

Baby incubator
The Embrace Incubator is small and light, making it simple and modest to transport to country towns. The whole resting pack can be purified in bubbling water. It is much more instinctive to use than
conventional hatcheries and fits well into the prescribed routine with regards to "Kangaroo Care," where a mother holds her infant against her skin.
Three students from Stanford University,  Jane Chen, a Taiwanese American, Rahul Panicker an US immigrant from India and  Kai Han, Taiwanese American initiated the
The Embrace group in 2008 in order to develop a low cost baby incubator  1% cost of a regular one, US$200. instead of  $20,000 
The item has now helped more than 200,000 children crosswise over 20 nations. Most as of late, Embrace Innovations propelled another line of infant items for the US advertise called Small Lotus Baby
(smalllotusbaby site). These swaddles and covers utilize remarkable innovation to keep babies at a perfect temperature, in this manner helping them to rest better.

We proved in our research that the commitment of foreign innovators is greater and more diversified than inborn innovators due to the discontinuous and disruptive innovation processes they generate.
Their contribution is in an extensive variety of key segments: Energy and new materials, Medical applications, Aerospace and Defense, Telecommunication – Security, Computers, Microelectronics and
Software and Consumable products.
Foreign innovators from India and China improved by disruptive innovations the economic situation of BoP (bottom of the pyramid) population in home and host countries by a more efficient local
infrastructure in telecommunication and energy, adapting technologies to local needs and supporting bottom up frugal innovations. 
- Open Access book / fulle  PDF

- Number of chapiter / 5

Pages:  I - IV and 1-74

- Affiliation:

Bar Ilan Univesity, Ramat Gan, Israel

- Discipline:

innovation process and Strategy
Sommaire  |

Pages I - IV

Introduction |
  Pages I - IV

Ilan Bijaoui  Chapiter 1
Pages 1-14

| Skilled Migration, Immigration Policy and Networks of Foreign Innovators |

Ilan Bijaoui  Chapiter 2
Pages 15-23

| Brain Drain of Nations |

Ilan Bijaoui Chapiter 3
Pages 24-26

Discontinuous and Disruptive Open innovation Models |

Ilan Bijaoui Chapiter 4
Pages 27-47

| Foreign Innovators and Open innovation |

Ilan Bijaoui Chapiter 5
Pages 48-51

Humanitarian disruptive open innovation |

| References |
Pages 52-74